When this is all over, big challenges face the EU. It will live or die by how it deals with the aftermath. Brussels was a bit slow in getting its act together when coming to the aid of its members. The huge financial package announced last week is welcome, but let’s see how it plays out. The response from the “frugal four” in Italy’s darkest hour was a reminder of how fractious and fragile the project remains.

Growing nationalism is at the heart of the threat to the continuing efforts to fiscal and social unity. The Common Agricultural Policy has probably been the only real successful example of the purpose of a federal Europe. Even that faces an uncertain future if state aid rules are not reinforced post-pandemic.