The dramatic reduction in fertiliser sales in 2023 compounds an already significant drop in sales for the 2022.

If anyone had contemplated a 33% reduction in artificial fertiliser sales and 12% reduction in organic nitrogen (stocking rate) two years ago, they would have been laughed at.

Now, instead of a combined 500kg (inorganic and organic), many farmers are using 400kg/ha – a 20% drop in nutrient.

This forces farmers into a shift in management, in particular to establish more clover in grassland in order to grow between and 11 and 13 tonnes of dry matter per hectare.