Sheep dog pups and young working dogs are most susceptible to health risks. Veterinary advice recommends vaccination against a number of life-threatening diseases (administered in one vaccine).

Two treatments are required, with the first administered at about eight weeks of age (in certain circumstances, it can be given as young as six weeks). A second injection is required two weeks after the first and completes the primary course. Full immunity is not developed until a week to 10 days after the full course. The advice is not to allow dogs to mix until immunity has developed. An annual booster is required to maintain protection. A vaccine is available for kennel cough, a highly contagious cough in dogs, which is particularly high-risk where dogs are mixing in public places or in trials.