Leaders all over the European Union may be scratching their heads wondering about the motives for Boris Johnson’s behaviour over a Northern Ireland (NI) Protocol that he was happy with only six months ago.

He is saying he will “do whatever it takes to protect the territorial integrity of the UK” from the NI Protocol. This is notwithstanding the fact that, in Article 1 of the NI Protocol, which he agreed in 2019, Boris Johnson himself accepted that “The Protocol respects the territorial integrity of the United Kingdom”.