Autumn-calving cows: With autumn calving getting into full swing on some farms, monitoring is key to avoid any losses. Where calving is taking place outdoors, it is advisable to move cows nearing calving to a maternity paddock near the yard – or somewhere close where they can be watched regularly during the day.

Mature cows may not be a major concern, but first- and second-calving cows should be moved if possible. If intervention is required, they can be easily moved into a yard or pen for handling. In general, if calving is not progressing after one to two hours after the water bag has burst, then the cow should be handled using gloves to ensure the cow is dilated and that the calf is in the correct position. Calving cameras are invaluable in keeping an eye on things at night or when away from the yard.