• % rented: c. 67% private rented (stable).
  • Agricultural policy: Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) – Belgium adopted a historic model for decoupling but retains the coupled suckler cow premium.
  • Tenure control: There is legislation for all leases of more than one year. Leases are generally for nine or 18 years, but can be ‘career’ up to age 65. Tenants have a pre-emptive right to buy and can pass leases to family members. Rent levels are controlled. Local land consolidation mechanisms exist.
  • Tax: Lightly taxed based on cadastral survey value [which shows the extent, value and ownership of land] not actual income. Income from renting out is taxed (but career leases are exempt). Property tax is paid annually by owner not tenant but based on nominal income. High tax rates for buying land.
  • New entrants policy: Inheritance is the normal route. Soft loans are offered to assist generations to buy-out. These are also available to new entrants but a lack of land supply is problematic.
  • Canada