African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious viral disease of pigs and wild boar that is usually fatal (but poses no risk to humans). The disease can be considered one of the most feared epidemic diseases of pig production, resulting in devastating consequences both at farm and industry level.

ASF has been around for several decades. Historically, it has been endemic to Africa and Sardinia. In 2007, however, the virus was detected in Georgia, and despite coordinated efforts it has since spread widely, initially through Eastern Europe and Russia. Since 2016, the disease spread has escalated and ASF has been spreading rapidly throughout much of Eastern Europe. Currently, there is no cure or vaccine available for it.