There are big differences between the management of herds that produce most of their milk over the winter and those that do so over the summer. For one thing, winter-milking herdowners are paid a premium price for their milk – reflecting the higher costs of production with winter milking.

Secondly, winter milking herds are fed a largely conserved forage diet, usually consisting of grass silage but it can include maize and wholecrop wheat. This is fed in addition to concentrate feed – usually at higher rates than their spring-calving counterparts.